upper chinook language

Dell Hymes 1984: 365 . Coastal Chinook) Clatsop Shoalwater (a.k.a. Extracts of the films taken during the 1930 Conference on PISL conservation, showing signers from various tribes. There is evidence that in some communities (e.g. Upper Chinookan data. Reflexive prefixes can serve as reciprocals and as medio-passives. Masculine prefixes appear with the large animals; feminine for small ones. 3. It had 69 speakers in 1990, of whom 7 were monolingual: five Wasco and two Wishram. For example, Ethnologue 15e classifies Kiksht as Lower Chinook, while others consider it instead Upper Chinook (discussion), and others a separate language. Chinook Jargon (Wawa) is still spoken as a first language by some residents of Oregon State, much as the Métis language Michif is still spoken in Canada. Chinook definition, a member of a formerly numerous North American Indian people originally inhabiting the northern shore of the mouth of the Columbia River and the adjacent territory. There is some dispute over classification, and there are two ISO 639-3 codes assigned: chh (Chinook, Lower Chinook) and wac (Wasco-Wishram, Upper Chinook). That’s to say, 8 of the 11 occurrences of the ethnonym have a “hushing” realization (“ch” rather than “ts”, “sh” rather than “s”), not native to Lower Chehalis. a language family comprising only Lower Chinook and Upper Chinook. ASL and LSQ). Shoalwater-Clatsop … Katlamat, Cathlamet) Lower Chinook (a.k.a. Note 1: It is important to distinguish between Chinookan languages and “Chinook jargon”. In 2001, there were five remaining speakers of Wasco. 1904: Riot at Nootka, and echoes of Sir James Douglas! For example, Ethnologue 15e classifies Kiksht as Lower Chinook, while others consider it instead Upper Chinook (), and others a separate language. It has SVO structure: Chinookan and Salishan are VSO, e.g., Haias olo tso naika [much hungry water I] "I'm very thirsty". However, local Athabaskan languages are SOV, so this is probably a result of contact – a cross-language compromise. ( Log Out /  The Chinookan languages were a small family of languages spoken in Oregon and Washington along the Columbia River by Chinook peoples. (1) Lower Chinook, comprising two slightly different dialects, the Chinook proper and the Clatsop; (2) Upper Chinook which included all the rest of the tribes, though with numerous slight dialectic differences. Hence, Jargon is now a creole language. Sponsored Links Cathlapotle Language Links Wasco-Wishram Language: Our resources about the Upper Chinook language (including Cathlapotle.) Classification open Upper Chinook; expand all; collapse all; Comments on subclassification. So, when “Chehalis” occurs in Chinookan, where it has no analyzable meaning, it’s a borrowed word. Their language forms one of the foundations of Chinuk Wawa. Change ). Miwok-Costanoan (Utian) Miwokan (Miwok) Mixtec. Modern usages: "That's skookum" in reference to a constructed object or a piece of work well done. Three can be seen in the Kathlamet verb. "A Pattern of Verbal Irony in Chinookan.". Post was not sent - check your email addresses! In 2001, there were five remaining speakers of Wasco. -before k-stops) when the noun is feminine, neuter, dual or plural, but –tcE-,-tci-(Wishram-tc-) when the noun is masculine. It includes part of his original introduction and the full text of the English-Chinook section of his dictionary. As in many North American languages, verbs constitute complete clauses in themselves. Let’s look into that now.Â. The number of tense/aspect prefix distinctions varies among the languages. Chinook Dyk 1933 A grammar of Wishram Nichols 1992 Linguistic Diversity in Space and Time Silverstein 1976 Hierarchy of Features and Ergativity Silverstein 1978 Deixis and deducibility in a Wasco-Wishram passive of evidence Masculine prefixes appear with nouns designating male persons, feminine with those denoting female persons. Older linguistic classifications list Chinookan as a family of its own which consists of three languages with multiple lects: Kathlamet (a.k.a. ( Log Out /  Definitely this is a sound change not found within Salish. ... Survey of California and Other Indian Languages, Department of Linguistics, University of California, Berkeley, 1203 Dwinelle Hall Upper Chinook, also known as Kiksht, Columbia Chinook, and Wasco-Wishram after its last surviving dialect, is a recently extinct language of the US Pacific Northwest. Chinook [chh] (A language of United States) - Upper Chinookan (1) Wasco-Wishram [wac] (A language of United States) And those White “drifters” would’ve thus been hearing this word in the earliest phase of Chinuk Wawa known to us from historical records. Most Chinook stories were recorded by the renowned anthropologist Melville Jacobs in the late '20s from a … This is an extract from George Gibb’s Dictionary of the Chinook Jargon, or, Trade Language of Oregon. Around 120 people in 1945, though some 609 were reported in the 1970s, having by then mixed extensively with other groups. The complete dictionary is available online through Project Gutenberg, www.gutenberg.org. Chinook Jargon also flourished from 1790s–1830s, then experienced a flood of English and French new vocabulary. Upper Chinook definition is - a Chinookan language of the Clackamas, Wasco, Wishram, and neighboring peoples. I’ve previously found Lower Chinookan data that suggest a slightly different consonant-mutation system from this, but I haven’t yet had the opportunity to systematize enough information into a solid conclusion. Coastal Chinook) Clatsop Shoalwater (a.k.a. Circa 1860: Remember Victoria’s queer Chinook town crier. Franz Boas wasn’t very accomplished at hearing the “glottalized resonant” consonants in Pacific NW languages, so we can’t tell for sure whether Q’lti was saying –ćxÌ£íĺs (-t’sxÌ£ílʔs), or instead –ćxÌ£-íls (-t’sxÌ£íls), in his Chinookan. 1805 — Ethnohistorian Robert Boyd estimates a population of 15,545 from Willamette Falls on the Willamette River to the P… They belonged to the Upper Chinook language division. All are used for nouns referring to objects as well. At Fort Vancouver, the language evolved and expanded, influenced by the diversity of its speakers. Uppercase definition, (of an alphabetical character) capital. In any case, saying “Chehalis” with a “ch”–type sound is a pronunciation foreign to the people named by it!Â, And because “Chehalis” is a foreign way of saying the name ćxÌ£-íĺs (t’sxÌ£-ílʔs), I might further speculate that it’s how the name was first encountered by non-Indigenous newcomers around 1800, who first and foremost dealt with Chinookans.Â. The ergative refers to agent of a transitive verb, the absolutive to patient of a transitive or single argument of an intransitive, the dative to indirect object. See more. 1803 The U.S. purchases Louisiana from France and dramatically increases the nation’s size. Using Kiksht (Wishram / Wasco etc.) DICTIONARY OF THE CHINOOK JARGON, OR, For Chinookan, it’s known that: Putting together what I’ve said so far, I’ll claim, with a slight bit of boldness, that Chinookans took, Salish ćxÌ£-íĺs (t’sxÌ£-ílʔs) as Chinookan ćxíls (t’sxíls).Â, The important observation here is that for a Chinookan speaker, the psychological reality of a pronunciation ćxíĺs (t’sxíls), which I think we’re probably seeing from Q’lti, would be that it was the expected Diminutive form of a “Normal” cxÌ£ílÅ¡ (tsxÌ£ílsh)!Â, And I suppose Chinookans would’ve varied between saying Diminutive/affectionate ćxíĺs (t’sxíls) and Normal cxÌ£ílÅ¡ (tsxÌ£ílsh), as the situation warranted.Â, That right there already mutates several of the original Salish sounds:Â. Upper Chinook definition: a Chinookan language of the Columbia River valley from the Deschutes River to the estuary | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Although the last known native speaker of any Chinookan language died in 2012, the 2009-2013 American Community Survey found 270 self-identified speakers of Upper Chinook. Chinook people were quickly diminished by European diseases: Numbered around 800 persons in 1800; they mixed with Chehalis (in fact, the very word Chinook is a Chehalis word for those who lived on the south of the river). There were Lower and Upper Chinookan groups, only a single variety of the latter now survives: Wasco-Wishram (Wasco and Wishram were originally two separate, similar varieties). Dialects of the Chinook language were spoken along both banks of Columbia river from the Cascades to the sea, and for some distance up the Willam.ette. And definitely it is found in the Chinookan system of consonant mutations. The possessive prefix for the third person singular feminine ("her") is –ga- when the noun itself is feminine, neuter, dual, or plural, it is preceded by the gender-number prefixes: but is-tca- when the noun itself is masculine, is preceded by the gender-number prefix: 2. The dialects of villages from the upper reaches of the Columbia River estuary to The Dalles have usually been named Upper Chinook. The Chinook people were finally recognized by the US Govt. When the reflexive follows can ergative-absolutive pronoun sequence, it indicates that one indirectly affected is the same as the ergative. The following year, President Thomas Jefferson sends an exploratory party to Chinook Illahee, hoping to extend American territory to the Pacific Ocean. Upper Chinook, also known as Kiksht, Columbia Chinook, and Wasco-Wishram after its last surviving dialect, is a recently extinct language of the US Pacific Northwest. Language is now extinct. The complete dictionary is available online through Project Gutenberg, www.gutenberg.org. DICTIONARY OF THE CHINOOK JARGON… Nouns contain an initial prefix, pronominal prefix, positive prefix, inner normalizer, root, a qualifying suffix, plural, and final suffix. in Jan. 2001, but in the 90-day grace period the Quinault Tribe filed an appeal stating that the Chinook Nation made mistakes when applying for federal recognition. Skookum is the most common and popular Chinook word and still in popular use in British Columbia. People of the Chinook culture dominated the region from near the mouth of the Columbia River eastward to the Dalles and included such groups as the Multnomahs (Willamette west bank from Sauvies Island) and the Wasco/Wishram (at Columbia River's Celilo Falls). It had 69 speakers in 1990, of whom 7 were monolingual: five Wasco and two Wishram. The possessive prefix for the first person singular "my" is –gE (Wishram-g-,-k-;- x̩ Upper Chinookan data as a guide, since that’s what’s most readily available, it would appear as though Chinookans “heard” native Lower Chehalis Salish ćxÌ£-íĺs (t’sxÌ£-ílʔs) as a Diminutive form. Nominal suffixes indicate emphasis or contrast, specificity, succession in time, definiteness, plurality, and time, location, or similarity. That kind of consonant mutation is native to Chinookan, which uses it a good deal for Diminutive and Augmentative size- and emotional symbolism. Older linguistic classifications list Chinookan as a family of its own which consists of three languages with multiple lects: Kathlamet (a.k.a. Their oral literature was equally rich, and their mythical pantheon was populated by powerful spirit and animal figures, ghosts, and ancestors. Clatsop Plains spoke dialects of one language, called Lower Chinook. It has sentence-initial negation which is atypical of regional languages and doesn't have typical complex morphology. Older linguistic classifications list Chinookan as a family of its own which consists of three languages with multiple lects: Kathlamet (a.k.a. Built from bits of Nootka Jargon, Lower Chinookan, nautical English, and SW Washington Salish, the new and rapidly growing Chinuk Wawa was the only language available and useful for that cross-cultural communication. Word order functions purely pragmatically; constituents appear in decreasing order of newsworthiness. So perhaps we should add something like (in a Grand Ronde spelling style) *t’səxéls* ~ *tsəxÌ£élsh* ~ *chxÌ£élsh* to our Chinuk Wawa dictionaries, to have a way of talking about this historically important Salish language and people! Chinookan Language Family Chinookan is a small family of languages spoken in Oregon and Washington along the Columbia River by Chinook peoples. The Joshua Project Progress Scale is an estimate of the progress of church planting among a people group, people cluster, country or language. The possessive prefixes are followed by noun stem, perhaps including another nominalizer. They belonged to the Upper Chinook language division. Kiksht (Wishram / Wasco etc.) Masculine prefixes also appear with nouns expressing qualities. The neuter may indicate indefiniteness. The tribes spoke at least 11 distinct languages, including Tillamook, Shasta, the Clatsop, lower, middle and upper dialects of Chinook, Kalapuya, Takelma, Alsea-Yaquina, Siuslaw, Coos, the Plateau Penutian languages Molala and Klickitat, and several related Athabaskan dialects (Upper Umpqua, Upper Coquille, … The Skilloot language is no longer spoken today, but today the Grand Ronde tribes are working to revive the old Chinook Jargon trade language, which played an important role in their shared history. Chinook - WordReference English dictionary, questions, discussion and forums. ( Log Out /  ( Log Out /  When the rivers rose in the spring, people moved out of the flood plain, towing the planks from their house behind their canoes. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. Clauses are combined by juxtaposition or particles, rather than subordinating inflection. Chippewa. (Image credit: ChinookAndLowerChehalis.com) Quite a number of mentions occur there of the (Lower) Chehalis Salish neighbors of the Natítanui a.k.a. In 1990, there were 69 speakers (7 monolinguals) of Wasco-Wishram; in 2001, 5 speakers of Wasco remained; the last fully fluent speaker, Gladys Thompson, died in 2012. Verbs contain an initial tense or aspect prefix, ergative pronominal prefix, obligatory assaultive prefixed, dative prefix, reflexive/reciprocal/middle, adverbial, directional, and verb stem. S house ’ in Kamloops slang were a small family of its own which consists three! 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